This page is about the Republic of India. For other uses, see India (disambiguation).
|Republic of India|
Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
Area controlled by India shown in dark green;
18°58′30″N72°49′33″E / 18.97500°N 72.82583°E / 18.97500; 72.82583
|Recognised regional languages|
|Ram Nath Kovind|
• Prime Minister
• Chief Justice
• Speaker of the Lower House
|Legislature||Parliament of India|
• Upper house
• Lower house
|Independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|
|15 August 1947|
|26 January 1950|
|3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi)[b] (7th)|
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
• 2011 census
|395.9/km2 (1,025.4/sq mi) (31st)|
|GDP (PPP)||2016 estimate|
|$8.727 trillion (3rd)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2016 estimate|
|$2.384 trillion (7th)|
• Per capita
medium · 79th
|HDI (2014)|| 0.609|
medium · 130th
|Currency||Indian rupee (₹) (INR)|
• Summer (DST)
|DST is not observed|
|Drives on the||left|
|ISO 3166 code||IN|
The Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गणराज्य) is a country in Asia. It is at the center of South Asia. India has more than 1.2 billion (1,210,000,000) people, which is the second largest population in the world. It is the seventh largest country in the world by area and the largest country in South Asia. It is also the most populous democracy in the world.
India has seven neighbours: Pakistan in the north-west, China and Nepal in the north, Bhutan and Bangladesh in the north-east, Myanmar in the east and Sri Lanka, an island, in the south.
The capital of India is New Delhi. India is a peninsula, bound by the Indian Ocean in the south, the Arabian Sea on the west and Bay of Bengal in the east. The coastline of India is of about 7,517 km (4,671 mi) long. India has the third largest military force in the world and is also a nuclear weapon state.
India's economy became the world's fastest growing in the G20 developing nations in the last quarter of 2014, replacing the People's Republic of China. India's literacy and wealth are also rising. According to New World Wealth, India is the seventh richest country in the world with a total individual wealth of $5.6 trillion. However, it still has many social and economic issues like poverty and corruption. India is a founding member of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), and has signed the Kyoto Protocol.
India has the fourth largest number of spoken languages per country in the world, only behind Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and Nigeria. People of many different religions live there, including the five most popular world religions: Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism. The latter three religions came from the Indian subcontinent along with Jainism.
National Symbols of India[change | change source]
The National emblem of India shows four lions standing back-to-back. The lions symbolise power, pride, confidence, and courage (bravery). Only the government can use this emblem, according to the State Emblem of India (Prohibition of Improper Use) Act, 2005
The name India comes from the Greek word, Indus, ultimately derived from the word sindhu, which in time turned into Hind or Hindi or Hindu. The preferred native name or endonym is "Bharat" in Hindi and other Indian languages as contrasted with names from outsiders.
History[change | change source]
Main article: History of India
Two of the main Classical languages of the world— Sanskrit and Tamil, were born in India. Both of these languages are more than 3000 years old. The country founded a religion called Hinduism, which most Indians still follow. Later, a king called Chandragupt Maurya built an empire called the Maurya Empire in 300 BC. It made most of South Asia into one whole country. From 180 BC, many other countries invaded India. Even later (100 BC — AD 1100), other Indian dynasties (empires) came, including the Chalukyas, Cholas, Pallavas, and Pandyas. Southern India at that time was famous for its science, art, and writing. The Cholas of Thanjavur were pioneers at war in the seas and invaded Malaya, Borneo, Cambodia. The influence of Cholas are still well noticeable in SE Asia.
Many dynasties ruled India around the year 1000. Some of these were the Mughal, Vijayanagara, and the Maratha empires. In the 1600s, European countries invaded India, and the British controlled most of India by 1856.
In the early 1900s, millions of people peacefully started to protest against British control. One of the people who were leading the freedom movement was Mahatma Gandhi, who only used peaceful tactics, including a way called "ahimsa", which means "non-violence". On 15 August 1947, India peacefully became free and independent from the British Empire. India's constitution was founded on 26 January 1950. Every year, on this day, Indians celebrate Republic Day. The first official leader (Prime Minister) of India was Jawaharlal Nehru.
After 1947, India has had a socialist planned economy. It is one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations. It has fought many wars since independence from Britain, including in 1947-48, 1965, 1971, and 1999 with Pakistan and in 1962 with China. It also fought a war to capture Goa, a Portuguese-built port and city which was not a part of India until 1961. The Portuguese refused to give it to the country, and so India had to use force and the Portuguese were defeated. India has also done nuclear tests in 1974 and 1998, and it is one of the few countries that has nuclear bombs. Since 1991, India has been one of the fastest-growing economies in the world.
Government[change | change source]
India is the largest democracy in the world.
India's government is divided into three parts: the Legislative (the one that makes the laws, the Parliament), the Executive (the government), and the Judiciary (the one that makes sure that the laws are obeyed, the supreme court).
The legislative branch is made up of the Parliament of India, which is in New Delhi, the capital of India. The Parliament of India is divided into two groups: the upper house, Rajya Sabha (Council of States); and the lower house, Lok Sabha (House of People). The Rajya Sabha has 250 members, and the Lok Sabha has 552 members.
The executive branch is made up of the President, Vice President, Prime Minister, and the Council of Ministers. The President of India is elected for five years. The President can choose the Prime Minister, who has most of the power. The Council of Ministers, such as the Minister of Defence, help the Prime Minister. Narendra Modi became the Prime Minister of India on May 16, 2014. He is the 19th Prime Minister of India.
The judicial branch is made up of the courts of India, including the Supreme Court. The Chief Justice of India is the head of the Supreme Court. Supreme Court members have the power to stop a law being passed by Parliament if they think that the law is illegal and contradicts (opposes) the Constitution of India. In India, there are also 24 High Courts.
Geography and climate[change | change source]
India is the seventh largest country in the world. It is the main part of the Indian subcontinent. The countries next to India are Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Bhutan, and Nepal. It is also near Sri Lanka, an island country.
India is a peninsula, which means that it is surrounded on three sides by water. One of the seven wonders of the world is in Agra: the Taj Mahal. In the west is the Arabian Sea, in the south is the Indian Ocean, and in the east is the Bay of Bengal. The northern part of India has many mountains. The most famous mountain range in India is the Himalayas, which have some of the tallest mountains in the world. There are many rivers in India. The main rivers are the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, the Yamuna, the Godavari, the Kaveri, the Narmada, and the Krishna.
India has different climates. In the South, the climate is mainly tropical, which means it can get very hot in summer and cool in winter. The northern part, though, has a cooler climate, called sub-tropical, and even alpine in mountainous regions. The Himalayas, in the alpine climate region, can get extremely cold. There is very heavy rainfall along the west coast and in the Eastern Himalayan foothills. The west, though, is drier. Because of some of the deserts of India, all of India gets rain for four months of the year. That time is called the monsoon. That is because the deserts attract water-filled winds from the Indian Ocean, which give rain when they come into India. When the monsoon rains come late or not so heavily, droughts (when the land dries out because there is less rain) are possible.
Defence[change | change source]
Main article: Indian Armed Forces
The Indian Armed Forces is the military of India. It is made up of an Army, Navy and Air Force. There are other parts like Paramilitary and Strategic Nuclear Command.
The President of India is its Commander-in-Chief. However, it is managed by the Ministry of Defence. In 2010, the Indian Armed Forces had 1.32 million active personnel. This makes it one of the largest militaries in the world.
Currently, the Indian Army is becoming more modern by buying and making new weapons. It is also building defences against missiles of other countries. In 2011, India imported more weapons than any other nation in the world.
From its independence in 1947, India fought four wars with Pakistan and one war with China.
Indian states[change | change source]
For administration purposes, India has been divided into smaller pieces. Most of these pieces are called states, some are called union territories. States and union territories are different in the way they are represented. Most union territories are ruled by administrators sent by the central government. All the states, and the territories of Delhi, and Puducherry elect their local government themselves. In total, there are twenty-nine states, and seven union territories.
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Port Blair|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||Silvassa|
|Daman and Diu||Daman|
Trouble with the borders[change | change source]
There are disputes about certain parts of the Indian borders. Countries do not agree on where the borders are.Pakistan and China do not recognise the disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The Indian government claims it as an Indian state. Similarly, the Republic of India does not recognise the Pakistani and Chinese parts of Kashmir.
In 1914, British India and Tibet agreed on the McMahon Line, as part of the Simla Accord. In July 1914, China withdrew from the agreement. Indians and Tibetans see this line as the official border. China does not agree, and both mainland China and Taiwan do not recognize that Arunachal Pradesh belongs to India. According to them, it is a part of South Tibet, which belongs to China.
Economy[change | change source]
Main article: Economy of India
The economy of the country is among the world's fastest growing. It is the 7th largest in the world with a nominal GDP of $2,250 billion (USD), and in terms of PPP, the economy is 3rd largest (worth $8,720 trillion USD). The growth rate is 8.25% for fiscal 2010. However, that is still $3678 (considering PPP) per person per year. India's economy is based mainly on:
India's economy is diverse. Major industries include automobiles, cement, chemicals, consumer electronics, food processing, machinery, mining, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, steel, transportation equipment, and textiles.
However, despite economic growth, India continues to suffer from poverty. 27.5% of the population was living in poverty in 2004–2005. In addition, 80.4% of the population live on less than USD $2 a day, which was lowered to 68% by 2009.
People[change | change source]
There are 1.12 billion people living in India. India is the second largest country by the number of people living in it, with China being the first. Experts think that by the year 2030, India will be the first. About 70% of Indians live in rural areas, or land set aside for farming. The largest cities in India are Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad. India has 23 official languages. Altogether, 1,625 languages are spoken in India.
Languages[change | change source]
There are many different languages and cultures in India. The only geographical place with more different languages and cultures is the African continent. There are two main language families in India, the Indo-Aryan and the Dravidian languages. About 69% of Indians speak an Indo-Arayan language, about 26% speak a Dravidian language. Other languages spoken in India come from the Austro-Asiatic group. Around 5% of the people speak a Tibeto-Burman language.
Hindi is the official language in India with the largest number of speakers. It is the official language of the union. Native speakers of Hindi represent about 41% of the Indian population (2001 Indian census). English is also used, mostly for business and in the administration. It has the status of a 'subsidiary official language'. The constitution also recognises 21 other languages. Either many people speak those languages, or they have been recognised to be very important for Indian culture. The number of dialects in India is as high as 1,652.
In the south of India, many people speak Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam. In the north, many people speak Chhattisgarhi, Punjabi, Bengali, Gujarati, and Marathi, Oriya, and Bihari.
India has 23 official languages. Its constitution lists the name of the country in each of the languages.Hindi and English (listed in boldface) are the "official languages of the union" (Union meaning the Federal Government in Delhi);Tamil,Sanskrit, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, and Odia are officially the "classical languages of India."
|Language||Long form||English Pronunciation||Short form|
|Assamese||ভাৰত গণৰাজ্য||Bhārôt Gôṇôrājÿô||ভাৰত Bharot|
|Bengali||ভারত গণরাজ্য||Bʰārôt Gôṇôrājÿô||ভারত Bharot|
|English||Republic of India||India|
|Gujarati||ભારતીય પ્રજાસત્તાક||Bhartiya Prajasattak||ભારત.|
|Hindi||भारत गणराज्य||Bhārata Gaṇarājya||भारत Bhārat|
|Kannada||ಭಾರತ ಗಣರಾಜ್ಯ||Bhārata Gaṇarājya||ಭಾರತ Bhārata|
|Manipuri (also Meitei or Meithei)||ভারত গণরাজ্য||ভারত|
|Marathi||भारतीय प्रजासत्ताक||Bhartiya Prajasattak||भारत Bhārat|
|Nepali||भारत गणराज्य||Bʰārat Gaṇarāǳya||भारत Bʰārat|
|Punjabi||ਭਾਰਤ ਗਣਤੰਤਰ||Bhārat Gantantar||ਭਾਰਤ Bhārat|
|Sanskrit||भारत गणराज्यम्||Bhārata Gaṇarājyam||भारत Bhārata|
|Tamil||இந்தியக் குடியரசு||Indiyak-Kudiyarasu||இந்தியா India/Bharadham|
|Telugu||భారత గణరాజ్యము||Bʰārata Gaṇa Rājyamu||భారత్ Bhārath|
|Urdu||جمہوریہ بھارت||Jumhūrīyat-e Bhārat||بھارت Bhārat|
Culture[change | change source]
Cave paintings from the Stone Age are found across India. They show dances and rituals and suggest there was a prehistoric religion. During the Epic and Puranic periods, the earliest versions of the epic poems Ramayana and Mahabharata were written from about 500–100 BCE, although these were orallytransmitted for centuries before this period. Other South Asian Stone Age sites apart from Pakistan are in modern India, such as the Bhimbetka rock shelters in central Madhya Pradesh and the Kupgal petroglyphs of eastern Karnataka, contain rock art showing religious rites and evidence of possible ritualised music.
Several modern religions are linked to India, namely modern Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. All of these religions have different schools (ways of thinking) and traditions that are related. As a group they are called the Eastern religions. The Indian religions are similar to one another in many ways: The basic beliefs, the way worship is done and several religious practices are very similar. These similarities mainly come from the fact that these religions have a common history and common origins. They also influenced each other.
The religion of Hinduism is the main faith followed by 79.80% of people in the Republic of India; Islam – 14.23%; Christianity – 2.30%; Sikhism – 1.72%; Buddhism – 0.70% and Jainism – 0.37%.
It's the first time ever since independence that Hindu population percentage fell below 80%.
Technology[change | change source]
India sent a spacecraft to Mars for the first time in 2014. That made it the fourth country and only Asian country to do so. India is the only country to be successful in its very first attempt to orbit Mars. It was called the Mars Orbiter Mission.
ISRO launched 104 satellites in a single mission to create world record. India became the first nation in the world to have launched over a hundred satellites in one mission. That was more than the 2014 Russian record of 37 satellites in a single launch.
Pop culture[change | change source]
India has the largest movie industry in the world.[source?] Based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), the industry is also known as Bollywood . It makes 1,000 movies a year, about twice as many as Hollywood.
Sports[change | change source]
Main article: Sports in India
There is no national game in India. Indians have excelled in Hockey. They have also won eight gold, one silver and two bronze medals at the Olympic games. However, cricket is the most popular sport in India. The Indian cricket team won the 1983 and 2011 Cricket World Cup and the 2007 ICC World Twenty20. They shared the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka and won the 2013 ICC Champions Trophy.Cricket in India is controlled by the Board of Control for Cricket in India or BCCI. Domestic tournaments are the Ranji Trophy, the Duleep Trophy, the Deodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy and the Challenger Series. There is also the Indian cricket league and Indian premier league Twenty20 competitions.
Tennis has become popular due to the victories of the India Davis Cup team. Association football is also a popular sport in northeast India, West Bengal, Goa and Kerala. The Indian national football team has won the South Asian Football Federation Cup many times. Chess, which comes from India, is also becoming popular. This is with the increase in the number of Indian Grandmasters. Traditional sports include kabaddi, kho kho, and gilli-danda, which are played throughout India.
Notes[change | change source]
- ↑"[...] Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song Vande Mataram
Hockey is an outdoor game played using hooked sticks between two teams (having eleven players in each) by following rules and regulations in order to win or defeat other team.
Essay on Hockey
We have provided below various short and long essay on hockey game under various words limit to help students of classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, etc. Essays or paragraphs writing have been one of the common strategies followed by the teachers to enhance writing skill and knowledge of student about any topic. All the hockey essay provided below are written in easy words and simple sentences. So, students can select any of the essays given below according to their need and requirement:
Hockey Essay 1 (100 words)
Hockey is a national game of India however played all over the country. It is a fast game played between two teams against each other. Each team has 11 players. All the players aim to hit the ball in other team net in order to get more score. Our country has been the world champion of hockey in 1928 and had won 6 gold medals in the Olympics games.
The period between 1928 to 1956 is known as the golden era of Indian hockey. The brilliant Indian hockey players has made the country so proud of them as they have won Olympics games for hockey many times for India. They knew well the magic of playing hockey and won the heart of everyone.
Hockey Essay 2 (150 words)
Hockey is a most popular game and known as the national game of India. Playing it regularly benefits us in many ways. It helps in improving the body stamina by offering good health. The person playing and practicing it, needs more effort and dedication to continue. It is an outdoor game generally liked by Indian youths. It is not so easy however regular practice of this game may help a lot to be the champion.
There are 11 players in each team (divided as five forwards, two full backs, three half backs, and a goal-keeper). It is played in two halves of 35 minutes with an interval of 5 to 10 minutes. It is a game of much interest and enjoyment easily motivates watchers to see the hockey match. It provides various health and financial benefits to the player. A person interested in this game can easily make his/her nice career.
Hockey Essay 3 (200 words)
Hockey is a national game of India in spite of ever-growing popularity of other games and sports in India (like cricket, badminton, etc). It is not officially recognized however chosen as national game. The golden period of hockey in India was from 1928 to 1956 when its brilliant players had won the six consecutive Olympic gold medals for it. Later, the future of hockey got in darkness after the death of a hockey star and hero named Dhyan Chand. At that time many hockey-playing Anglo Indians were migrated to the Australia. However, recently it is seen a little growth in the interest of Indian players towards hockey. Dhanraj Pillay was another hero of Indian field hockey who has been a former captain of Indian hockey team. Currently he is appointed as the manager of Indian hockey team. He had won an Arjuna Award for Hockey.
Why Hockey is National Game of India
Hockey has been chosen as the National Game because of the golden period of hockey in India (from 1928 to 1956). At that time, the Indian hockey players were doing really excellent job of them, so their regular win and outstanding talent was the reason to choose this game as a national game of the country. During that golden time, India had actively participated and played 24 Olympic matches. And the most surprising thing was that it had won all the matches scoring 178 goals and conceding only 7 goals. It had won gold medals in Tokyo Olympics (1964) and Moscow Olympics (1980).
Hockey is a nice game and mostly liked by the students. In order to bring another golden period for the hockey, it should be promoted in the schools and colleges among students to actively participate. Talented children should be properly trained to play hockey right from the school level. There should be the arrangement of necessary funds and other facilities for students by the government in order to preserve the Indian glory.
Hockey Essay 4 (250 words)
Hockey is a nice game generally liked and played by the youths of the country. It is also played in other countries worldwide. However, it is the national game of India, as India has been glorified by this sport many times through amazing wins. Indian has been the world champion in the field of hockey for many years. Now this game has also been popular in other countries such as Holland, Germany, Pakistan, Australia, England, etc. It is a fast game, in which players have to run all time whenever game takes its speed. It is a game of two teams with eleven players in each. Players have to be alert all through the time till game becomes over. All the positions of players in this game (such as goal keeper, right backs, centre forwards and left backs) become very important.
Some of the Indian heroes of golden era hockey were Dhyan Chand, Ajit Pal Singh, Dhanraj Pillay, Ashok Kumar, Udham Singh, Baboo Nimal, Balbir Singh Sr., Mohammed Shahid, Gagan Ajit Singh, Leslie Claudius, etc. They were real heroes who led India towards a huge success in the field of hockey. Dhyan Chand was a brilliant hockey player who is still called as the wizard of hockey. India became the world champion first time in hockey in 1928 and won the Gold Medal at Amsterdam Olympics. After that year, India had continued maintaining its world championship in hockey till it lost to win in the Rome Olympics. Later, it got seventh place in Montreal Olympics, regained Gold Medal in Moscow Olympics (1980); however, again lost a Gold Medal in 1984.
Hockey Essay 5 (300 words)
Hockey is an outdoor game played by two teams having eleven players in each. It has been chosen as the national game of India because India has been a world champion in hockey for many years. It is not officially declared as the national game however only considered as the national game as India had won many gold medals in hockey. It is played in many countries all over the world. It is not an expensive game and can be played by any youth. It is a game of much interest and enjoyment which involves lot of action and suspense. It is very fast game and situation changes very often in this game which creates surprise.
Importance of Hockey in India
Hockey is a game of much importance in India as it is chosen as the national game because it had made India a world champion in hockey many times. This game has a big and bright history as it was deep rooted in India by the brilliant hockey players. It is one of the oldest known sports of India however the root has been weak now because of the lack of talented hockey players and required facilities. This game is considered to be in existence for around 1200 years old before the Ancient Games of Olympia.
Earlier it was played in different variations, however currently it is played as field hockey which was developed in British Isles in 19th century. It was an English school game however brought to India by British Army regiments. Later, it was spread internationally and got worldwide popularity. In order to govern this game and standardize its rules, London Hockey Association was formed. Later, the International Hockey Federation (in 1924) and International Federation of Women’s Hockey were formed.
First hockey club in India was formed in Calcutta (1885-86). Indian hockey players made their successful Olympic debut in 1928 Amsterdam Games where they won the Olympic gold medal. It happened because of a brilliant Indian hockey legend named Dhyan Chand. He really mesmerized all the Indians in front of the Amsterdam crowd. India continuously won six Olympic gold medals and 24 consecutive hockey matches during its golden era of hockey. Some of the outstanding players of golden era of hockey were Dhyan Chand, Balbir Singh Sr., Ajit Pal Singh, Ashok Kumar, Udham Singh, Dhanraj Pillay, Baboo Nimal, Mohammed Shahid, Gagan Ajit Singh, Leslie Claudius, etc.
Hockey Essay 6 (400 words)
Hockey is a most popular and interesting game played in many countries. It has been chosen as the national game of India however never got any official declaration. This game has two teams with eleven players in each. Players of a team in this game aimed to make maximum goals against other team by putting a ball into the opponent’s goal post using hockey stick. Our country has made an excellent record in the field of hockey after winning the six Olympic gold medals and various consecutive matches. The period when India won various consecutive hockey matches is called as the golden period (1928 to 1956). Dhyan Chand was a famous hockey player of the golden time and known as the wizard of hockey because of his outstanding achievement.
History and Origin of Hockey
Hockey is an ancient game played for years in India. It is played with a hockey stick and a ball. It was played in Ireland before 1272 BC and during 600 BC in Ancient Greece. There are various variations of the hockey; some of them are named as field hockey, ice hockey, sledge hockey, roller hockey, street hockey, etc. Now-a-days, field hockey is generally played. Ice hockey was evolved as a derivative of field hockey to be played in the icy conditions of Canada and northern United States.
Equipment Needed to Play Hockey
Playing hockey game in safe manner requires some important equipment which are named as helmet, neck guard, shoulder pads, elbow pads, Jockstrap with cup pocket and protective cup (to support or protect male genitals), hockey stick, and a puck or ball.
Forms of Hockey
Other forms of the hockey (derived from hockey or its predecessors) are like air hockey, beach hockey, ball hockey, box hockey, deck hockey, floor hockey, foot hockey, gym hockey, mini hockey, nok Hockey, pond hockey, power hockey, rossall hockey, skater hockey, table hockey, underwater hockey, unicycle hockey and many more.
Future of Hockey in India
As we all know that, the good time of hockey game in India became really over after the golden era of hockey in India. It was due to the lack of interested and talented hockey players as well as required facilities for youths to continue the game in future. It seems that it will never finish and the golden era of hockey will return back because of the love, respect and dedication of Indian youths in this national game. However, it needs a lot of effort, dedication and support by the Indian government to bring golden period of hockey back in India. Hockey India League is planning to implement some effective strategies to expand hockey teams (8 teams by 2016 and 10 teams by 2018). There is a favorable agreement made between Hockey India and Hockey Australia to participate in hockey for the upcoming three seasons (6 match test tournament will take place from 2016 to 2018 in Australia).
Hockey is a national game of India. It is only said so, however not officially declared. Now, it is our responsibility to make it an officially declared national game by bringing its golden period again. It should be highly promoted among students from the school time by providing them all the facilities from the end of teachers, parents and government.