The hardware alone cannot perform any particular calculation or manipulation without being instructed exactly what to do and in what order to do it. These instructions are hence as important, if not more than hardware and are called software. The software acts as an interface between the user and the computer.
A software or a program can be defined as a complete set of written instructions written by the programmer which enables the computer to obtain the solution of problem (with or without data). Software is a general term that is used to describe any single program or group of programs.
Types of Software
1. Application Software
2. System Software
3. Utility Software.
1. Application Software are programs employed by the user to perform some specific functions. For example, an application software can be a program used for inventory control in business or a program used for engineering design. Some examples of Application Software are : -
a. Word processors
c. Database management.
2. System Software consists of all programs, languages and documentation supplied by the manufacturer along with the computer. These programs allow the user to communicate with the computer and write or develop his own programs. This software makes the machine easier to use and helps to make very efficient use of the resources of the hardware. System software are programs held permanently on a machine, which will relieve the programmer from some mundane tasks and will improve resources utilization. Without this software, the user will not be in a position to develop his own application software. System Software is written especially for a particular type of computer. Hence it cannot be used, without any modifications, on different computers. System software is usually supplied by the computer manufacturer. System software includes:
i. Operating System
ii. Language Translators
iii. Programming Languages
v. Utility programs
vii. Loader Programs
3. Utility software may be considered as applications software or systems software, which is used quite often in the development of a program. For example, a program for the evaluation of logarithm or square root of a number may be required in developing some applications software. Utility programs are also required to transfer data from tape-to-tape, tape-to-disk, card-to-tape or tape-to-printer. Other utility programs like sort/merge programs are used to sort records into a particular sequence to facilitate updating of files. These sorted files can then be merged into a single updated file using merger utility program. Such programs are normally supplied by the hardware manufacturer and supplied along with system. However, the user can also develop his own utility software and keep it in the primary memory of the computer.
Essay about software engineering
3453 Words14 Pages
Software engineering (SE) is the profession concerned with specifying, designing, developing and maintaining software applications by applying technologies and practices from computer science, project management, and other fields.
SE applications are used in a wide range of activities, from industry to entertainment. Software applications improve user productivity and quality of life. Application software examples: office suites, video games, and the world wide web. System software examples: embedded systems and operating systems.
SE technologies and practices improve the productivity of developers and the quality of the applications they create. Software engineering examples: databases, languages, libraries, patterns, and tools. Computer…show more content…
Typical senior-level software engineers have an advanced degree and have ten or more years of experience. Note that these are only guidelines that are trends seen in hiring practices and that many exceptions exist.
Software engineering is the practice of creating software.
Members of this profession are called software engineers, programmers, developers, or practitioners.
People who write code and do not follow the doctrines of software engineering are more accurately called programmers, developers, or software artists.
Software engineering today
Impact of software engineering
Software engineering affects economies and societies in many ways.
In the U.S., software drove about 1/4 of all increase in GDP during the 1990s (about $90 billion per year), and 1/6 of all productivity growth (efficiency within GDP) during the late 1990s (about $33 billion per year). Software engineering drove $1 trillion of economic and productivity growth over the last decade.
Software engineering changes world culture, wherever people use computers. Email, the world-wide web, and instant messaging enable people to interact in new ways. Software lowers the cost and improves the quality of health-care, fire departments, and other important social services.
Successful projects where software engineering methods have been applied include Linux, the space shuttle software, and automatic teller machines. When it is cheaper to run a business or