An Essay On Your Arteries

The Structure and Functions of the Arteries

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The Structure and Functions of the Arteries


Arteries are blood vessels that convey blood from the heart to the
tissues of the body.

The arteries expand and then constrict with each beat of the heart, a
rhythmic movement that may be felt as the pulse. Arteries are usually
named from the part of the body that they are found, for example;
brachial artery found in the arms, metacarpal artery found in the
wrist; or from the organ which they supply as the hepatic artery
supplies the liver, pulmonary artery brings deoxygenated blood the
lungs. The facial artery is the branch of the external carotid artery
that passes up over the lower jaw and supplies the superficial portion
of the face; the haemorrhoidal arteries are three vessels that supply
the lower end of the rectum; the intercostal arteries are the arteries
that supply the space between the ribs; the lingual artery is the
branch of the external carotid artery that supplies the tongue.

The structure of the artery enables it to perform its function more
efficiently. The walls of arteries are made up of three layers same as
veins. Its inner endothelium is composed of epithelial cells which is
very smooth. This layer helps minimise the friction. The tunica media
provides strength and elasticity. It contains smooth muscles, collagen
and large amount of elastic fibres. Elastic fibres enable the wall to
stretch as blood surge through at high pressure. Tunica externa is the
outer layer of connective tissues containing elastic and collagen
fibres. It provides support for the blood vessel and attaches it to
whatever other tissue it runs through.

Artery walls are very thick and strong. The tunica media which is the
thickest part of the wall contains huge amount of elastic fibres which
enables the wall to stretch and withstand the blood surging out at
high pressure. The elasticity of the walls is important because it
reduces the possibility of them bursting. Also as blood rushes out the
heart in high pressure the walls stretch and become wider reducing the

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Functions         Elastic         Supplies         Vessels         Tissues         Friction         Pulmonary         Walls         Elasticity         Branch        




pressure. On the other hand when blood enters an artery in low
pressure the walls recoil inwards giving the blood a little push and
increasing the pressure a little.

Arteries branch out into smaller blood vessels called arterioles as
they reach tissues which they are transporting blood to. The walls of
arterioles are similar to those of arteries but they have a greater
number of smooth muscles. When smooth muscles contract they narrow the
diameter of the arteriole therefore controlling the volume of blood
flowing into a tissue at different times.

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The Cardiovascular System Essay

771 Words4 Pages

The heart, blood and blood vessels make up the basis of the cardiovascular system also known as the circulatory system. The average human body contains approximately 5 litres of blood which is carried around the body via a network of blood vessels split into three types; arteries, veins and capillaries. The arteries are the largest of the three vessels and carry blood away from the heart. Veins carry blood to the heart and are smaller than arteries, then finally the smallest vessels known as capillaries distribute the oxygen rich blood to organs whilst simultaneously picking up the waste carbon dioxide and water from the organs to transport back to the heart where it can be pumped into the lungs to be exhaled.

Blood actually has multiple…show more content…

The heart, blood and blood vessels make up the basis of the cardiovascular system also known as the circulatory system. The average human body contains approximately 5 litres of blood which is carried around the body via a network of blood vessels split into three types; arteries, veins and capillaries. The arteries are the largest of the three vessels and carry blood away from the heart. Veins carry blood to the heart and are smaller than arteries, then finally the smallest vessels known as capillaries distribute the oxygen rich blood to organs whilst simultaneously picking up the waste carbon dioxide and water from the organs to transport back to the heart where it can be pumped into the lungs to be exhaled.

Blood actually has multiple components: Red blood cells are the transport mechanism that carry vital materials such as nutrients and oxygen to cells in the body, and remove the waste and unused bi-products produced by organ and body function. Haemoglobin in blood carries the oxygen molecules around the circulatory system. They oxygen binds to the iron in the blood cells and gives blood its red colour. As the blood is diffused across the membranes of the capillary walls and into the cells of organs, the level of carbon dioxide is diffused back as waste from cells to the blood cells where it can be transported to the excretory organs, as well as repeat it’s reoxygenation process in capillaries of the lungs. Red blood cells are transported around the blood vessels in a

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