Art History Department
Writing and Research in Art History
Citations, Style and Bibliography
Sample Essay: Citation Practices, Style, Bibliographic Forms, and Caption Format
We have created a fictional excerpt from a fictional essay in order to demonstrate correct writing and citation format. The sources exist but they do not necessarily include the information cited. Please read the essay carefully to note how the author uses notes, to appreciate the correct format in which sources are cited in notes and the bibliography, and to notice correct illustration caption format.
Please consult the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th or 16th ed., and use the notes and bibliography system.
SUBSEQUENT CITATIONS: Use the Chicago Quick Guide the first time you reference a source, but for subsequent citations of that source, use the short form. Examples below.
Book, one author:
2. Doniger, Splitting the Difference, 67.
Chapter or other part of a book:
6. Wiese, "'The House I Live In,'" 103.
Article in a print journal:
9. Smith, "The Origin of Altruism," 635.
Directions given in class or on assignments sheets supersede those given here—when in doubt, ask your instructor.
Essay with commentary on text, notes, and captions.
Bibliography with commentary.
Chicago Manual of Style
Researchers in the field of Art & Architectural History often use The Chicago Manual of Style (Humanities).
MLA: Modern Language Association Style
The MLA format is parenthetical; you give your source in parentheses immediately following the sentence or thought it affected. At the end of your paper, you will then include a "Works Cited" or Bibliography referencing each source used. What goes into a Works Cited page? 1. Only those sources that are referenced in in your paper; 2. Organize your list by alphabetizing sources according to the authors' last names. If no author name is given, by the first main word in the title.
...Much like Turner in his painting, John Soane attached great importance to poetry which he saw as a sister art to architecture. (Watkin 431)
drop the last name if you continue to cite the same work in succession - just use the page number:
...And also like Turner, Soane's poetic taste was more Augustan and less Romantic. (431)
Sample Citations for Articles:
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical Date: page(s).
Sample Citations for Scholarly Articles:
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume number (Complete date): pages covered by article.
Sample Citations for Anthology Selections:
Author of article. "Title of Article." Title of Book. Editor of book. City: Publisher, date. Pages covered by article.
Sample Citations for Newspaper Articles:
Author (if given). "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper Complete date, name of edition (if given), section number or title: page(s).
Sample Citations for Web or Digital Content:
If you read a newspaper article online, e-book, or anything else published in both print and electronic formats, record the following information about the media YOU use to access the content.
Information for print version. Information service. Name and location of library. Date accessed.
Cavendish, Richard. "Sir John Soane's Museum." History Today 44.2 (February 1994): 62-65. Academic Search. Yale University Library, New Haven, CT. 12 July 2007.
Author or organization. "Title of section, if given." Title of the complete work. Date of publication or last revision. Sponsoring organization if different from author. Date you viewed it.
Michael Rosenthal: "Gainsborough, Thomas" Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, July 12, 1997.