This article is about the season. For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation).
"Summers" redirects here. For other uses, see Summers (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Sumer.
Summer is the hottest of the four temperateseasons, falling after spring and before autumn. At the summer solstice, the days are longest and the nights are shortest, with day-length decreasing as the season progresses after the solstice. The date of the beginning of summer varies according to climate, tradition and culture. When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere, and vice-versa.
From an astronomical view, the equinoxes and solstices would be the middle of the respective seasons, but sometimes astronomical summer is defined as starting at the solstice, the time of maximal insolation, or on the traditional date of June 21. A variable seasonal lag means that the meteorological center of the season, which is based on average temperature patterns, occurs several weeks after the time of maximal insolation. The meteorological convention is to define summer as comprising the months of June, July, and August in the northern hemisphere and the months of December, January, and February in the southern hemisphere. Under meteorological definitions, all seasons are arbitrarily set to start at the beginning of a calendar month and end at the end of a month. This meteorological definition of summer also aligns with the commonly viewed notion of summer as the season with the longest (and warmest) days of the year, in which daylight predominates. The meteorological reckoning of seasons is used in Australia, Austria, Denmark, the former Soviet Union and Japan. It is also used by many in the United Kingdom. In Ireland, the summer months according to the national meteorological service, Met Éireann, are June, July and August. However, according to the Irish Calendar, summer begins on 1 May and ends on 1 August. School textbooks in Ireland follow the cultural norm of summer commencing on 1 May rather than the meteorological definition of 1 June.
Days continue to lengthen from equinox to solstice and summer days progressively shorten after the solstice, so meteorological summer encompasses the build-up to the longest day and a diminishing thereafter, with summer having many more hours of daylight than spring. Reckoning by hours of daylight alone, summer solstice marks the midpoint, not the beginning, of the seasons. Midsummer takes place over the shortest night of the year, which is the summer solstice, or on a nearby date that varies with tradition.
Where a seasonal lag of half a season or more is common, reckoning based on astronomical markers is shifted half a season. By this method, in North America, summer is the period from the summer solstice (usually 20 or 21 June in the Northern Hemisphere) to the autumn equinox.
Reckoning by cultural festivals, the summer season in the United States is commonly regarded as beginning on Memorial Day weekend (the last weekend in May) and ending on Labor Day weekend (the first weekend in September), more closely in line with the meteorological definition for the parts of the country that have four-season weather. The similar Canadian tradition starts summer on Victoria Day one week prior (although summer conditions vary widely across Canada's expansive territory) and ends, as in the United States, on Labour Day.
In Chinese astronomy, summer starts on or around 5 May, with the jiéqì (solar term) known as lìxià (立夏), i.e. "establishment of summer", and it ends on or around 6 August.
In southern and southeast Asia, where the monsoon occurs, summer is more generally defined as lasting from March, April, May and June, the warmest time of the year, ending with the onset of the monsoon rains.
Because the temperature lag is shorter in the oceanic temperate southern hemisphere, most countries in this region use the meteorological definition with summer starting on 1 December and ending on the last day of February.
See also: Hail, Tropical cyclone, and Wet season
Summer is traditionally associated with hot or warm weather. In the Mediterranean regions, it is also associated with dry weather, while in other places (particularly in Eastern Asia because of the Monsoon) it is associated with rainy weather. The wet season is the main period of vegetation growth within the savanna climate regime. Where the wet season is associated with a seasonal shift in the prevailing winds, it is known as a monsoon.
In the northern Atlantic Ocean, a distinct tropical cyclone season occurs from 1 June to 30 November. The statistical peak of the Atlantic hurricane season is 10 September. The Northeast Pacific Ocean has a broader period of activity, but in a similar time frame to the Atlantic. The Northwest Pacific sees tropical cyclones year-round, with a minimum in February and March and a peak in early September. In the North Indian basin, storms are most common from April to December, with peaks in May and November. In the Southern Hemisphere, the tropical cyclone season runs from 1 November until the end of April with peaks in mid-February to early March.
Thunderstorm season in the United States and Canada runs in the spring through summer. These storms can produce hail, strong winds and tornadoes, usually during the afternoon and evening.
Schools and universities typically have a summer break to take advantage of the warmer weather and longer days. In almost all countries, children are out of school during this time of year for summer break, although dates vary. In the United States, public schools usually end in early June while colleges get out in early May, although some schools get out on the last or second last Thursday in May. In England and Wales, school ends in mid-July and resumes again in early September; in Scotland, the summer holiday begins in late June and ends in mid- to late-August. Similarly, in Canada the summer holiday starts in late June and ends at the very start of September. In Russia the summer holiday begins at the end of May and ends on August 31. In the Southern Hemisphere, school summer holiday dates include the major holidays of Christmas and New Year's Day. School summer holidays in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa begin in early-December and end in early February, with the dates varying between states. In India, school ends in April and resumes in late June or early July. In Cameroon and Nigeria, schools usually go for summer vacation in mid-July and resume back in the later weeks of September or first week of October.
A wide range of public holidays fall during summer, including:
People generally take advantage of the high temperatures by spending more time outdoors during summer. Activities such as travelling to the beach and picnics occur during the summer months. Sports such as association football, basketball, American football, volleyball, skateboarding, baseball, softball, cricket, tennis and golf are played. Water sports also occur. These include water skiing, wake boarding, swimming, surfing, tubing and water polo. The modern Olympics have been held during the summer months every four years since 1896. The 2000 Summer Olympics, in Sydney, however, were held during the AustralianSpring.
Summer is normally a low point in television viewing, and television schedules generally reflect this by not scheduling new episodes of their most popular shows between the end of May sweeps and the beginning of the television season in September, instead scheduling low-cost reality television shows and burning off commitments to already-cancelled series. There is an exception to this with children's television. Many television shows made for children and are popular with children are released during the summer months, especially on children's cable channels such as the Disney Channel in the United States, as children are off school. Disney Channel, for example, ends its preschool programming earlier in the day for older school age children in the summer months while it reverts to the original scheduling as the new school year begins. Conversely, the music and film industries generally experience higher returns during the summer than other times of the year and market their summer hits accordingly. Summer is most popular for animated movies to be released theatrically in movie theaters.
With most school-age children and college students (except those attending summer school) on summer vacation during the summer months, especially in the United States, travel and vacationing traditionally peaks during the summer, with the volume of travel in a typical summer weekend rivaled only by Thanksgiving. Teenagers and college students often take summer jobs in industries that cater to recreation. Business activity for the recreation, tourism, restaurant, and retail industries peak during the summer months as well as the holiday season.
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There are four seasons: fall, winter, spring, and summer. Each season has its own holidays, traditions, and typical weather conditions. By looking at each, we are able to see what the particular characteristics are that make one season different from the next.
When someone imagines the fall or autumn season, he or she often pictures the leaves on the trees turning beautiful shades of yellow, red, and orange. As winter approaches, the leaves then begin to fall off the trees. The fall season is full of chilly evenings perfect for playing outside. In addition, Halloween and Thanksgiving are two well-known fall celebrations that many people take part in. Fall is the season that is thought of as back-to-school time for students of all ages.
Wintertime means snowy, cold weather for many people. Most trees have lost their leaves and some animals have gone into hibernation. Christmas takes place in the wintertime as well as New Year’s celebrations. There are many outside activities that kids enjoy in the winter season such as making snowmen, sledding, and ice-skating. Cold weather and snow can be a lot of fun for kids who love to be outdoors.
In a lot of places, the spring season is accompanied by large amounts of rain. Snow is quickly disappearing, colorful flowers are blooming, and leaves are reappearing on the trees. Baby birds are hatching, various animals are being born, and others are coming out of hibernation. Celebrations of Easter happen in the springtime as well.
Summer is a favorite season of many children who look forward to a long vacation away from school. The warm temperatures of the summer months allow kids to swim, fish, and spend a lot of time outside having fun. Independence Day is celebrated in America on the Fourth of July. Fireflies are a common sight as they explore the air around the blooming trees in a backyard or wooded area.
It’s important to remember that it is not the same season all across the world at the same time. The earth rotates on an axis and moves around the sun. The earth’s tilt is responsible for the season in a particular part of the world. In other words, when one hemisphere, or half of the earth, is leaning toward the sun, the other hemisphere is tilted away from it. Consequently, when it is one season in the northern hemisphere, it is the opposite season in the southern hemisphere. During its winter season, the northern hemisphere is leaning away from the sun. In turn, the southern hemisphere in its summer season is tilted toward the sun. Furthermore, at the equator, it’s always hot because that area continually receives a lot of sunlight. Lower seasonal temperatures are the result of moving away from the equator.
The fall season brings colder temperatures and frost. Corn is one of the crops that is harvested in the fall. In addition, some children enjoy trick or treating on Halloween night. Furthermore, in the fall season there are animals that prepare for hibernation by eating a lot in order to store up enough body fat to live on through the winter months.
Winter brings snow and ice for many people in the world. Evergreen trees are brought inside homes and set up for Christmas celebrations. Bears have gone into hibernation and most trees have lost all of their leaves. Shoveling snow and building snowmen are two common activities of the winter season.
In nature, the spring season is a time of renewal. Trees begin to bud and flowers bloom. Easter egg hunts are held in the springtime to celebrate the season. Rainy days help the growth of the flowers, grass, and trees during the spring.
- The Spring Equinox: Learn details about the position of the sun during the Spring Equinox.
- Gardening Facts: Learn the basics of gardening along with which flowers are planted in the springtime (after the final occurrence of frost).
- Groundhogs and Springtime: Read a historical background of the groundhog and how the animal is connected with the arrival of spring.
- The Activity of Crayfish in the Springtime: Discover how crayfish appear from their burrows in the springtime and what they do.
- Poems about Rain: Rain is common in the springtime. This gathering of writings offers poems about the rain.
For many students, summer is a time of relaxation and a break from schoolwork. The Fourth of July is celebrated in America with parades and other outdoor activities. The long days of summer allow for lots of time with friends and family. Summer is a common season for thunderstorms that are both powerful and exciting to see.
See other science education articles for kids.