Reinhard Rudolf Karl Hartmann is a lexicographer and applied linguist. Until the 1970s, lexicographers worked in relative isolation, and Hartmann is credited with making a major contribution to lexicography and fostering interdisciplinary consultation between reference specialists.
R.R.K. Hartmann is co-author of the standard texts Dictionary of Language and Linguistics (1972) and the Dictionary of Lexicography (1998); the former has been translated into Chinese, the latter into Japanese. Hartmann has also produced works on a wide range of linguistic and lexicographic topics (see list of Publications below). Two selections of his essays have been published in Kuwait (2004) and Germany (2007).
Reinhard Hartmann was born on 8 April 1938 in Vienna, Austria, as the son of Walther and Gerta Hartmann. He obtained a degree at the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, where he later wrote a doctoral dissertation on public economy control and auditing, studied at the University of Vienna, where he was awarded a diploma in English translation, and was a postgraduate student at Southern Illinois University, where he received an M.A. in international economics.
In 1964, Hartmann moved to Manchester where he married Lynn Warren and where their children Nasim and Stefan were born. He started his career with an appointment as lecturer in modern languages at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology. This was followed in 1968 by a lectureship in applied linguistics at the University of Nottingham. From 1974 onwards, Hartmann held senior posts in the Language Centre and the School of English at the University of Exeter, where he also organised a number of influential conferences, such as LEXeter ’83 which led to the creation of the European Association of Lexicography (EURALEX), the International Journal of Lexicography and the book series Lexicographica Series Maior (of which he was one of the co-editors from 1984 to 2008, during which period 134 volumes were published). He attended 12 of the 13 biennial congresses that have been held since 1983, contributing papers at half of them and acting as first secretary and fourth president.
Hartmann has also been involved in the founding of AFRILEX (Johannesburg 1995) and ASIALEX (Hong Kong 1997). Other conferences he hosted at Exeter include one on the history of lexicography (Hartmann 1986), which demonstrated that lexicographic traditions differ considerably by dictionary types and languages, and one on lexicography in Africa (Hartmann 1990). He has acted as a consultant to a number of bodies, received a number of grants and fellowships to spend time abroad and to participate in various initiatives to promote the discipline. He also welcomed several visiting scholars for periods at Exeter University. His achievements have been recorded in several international directories, and he is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts and of the Chartered Institute of Linguists.
While at Exeter, Hartmann supervised over 45 M.A. and 30 Ph.D. dissertations, specialising on such aspects as dictionary criticism (evaluating their many different features), dictionary history (tracing their varying traditions), dictionary typology (classifying their different genres), dictionary use (observing the reference skills needed to access information), contrastive linguistics, translation and bilingual lexicography.
Upon his retirement in 2001, the Dictionary Research Centre that Hartmann had established at the University of Exeter was transferred to the University of Birmingham where he was awarded the title of Honorary Professor of Lexicography in the School of English. Since 2007, Hartmann has been consolidating his various lists of conferences, institutions, dictionary projects, dissertations, and periodicals into an International Directory of Lexicography Institutions.
- Dictionary of Language and Linguistics (1972) comp. by R.R.K. Hartmann & F.C. Stork, London: Applied Science Publishers (Chinese translation Yuyan yu yuyan xue cidian published 1981).
- Dictionaries and Their Users. Papers from the 1978 BAAL Seminar on Lexicography (1979) ed. by R.R.K. Hartmann (Exeter Linguistic Studies Vol. 4), University of Exeter and ITL Review of Applied Linguistics, Catholic University of Leuven.
- Contrastive Textology. Comparative Discourse Analysis in Applied Linguistics (1980) by R.R.K. Hartmann (Studies in Descriptive Linguistics Vol. 5), Heidelberg: Groos.
- Lexicography. Principles and Practice (1983) ed. by R.R.K. Hartmann (Applied Language Studies), London/New York: Academic Press (Japanese translation Jishogaku – sono genri to jissai published 1984; Bahasa Malaysia translation Leksikografi: prinsip dan amalan published 1993).
- LEXeter '83 Proceedings. Papers from the International Conference on Lexicography at Exeter, 9–12 September 1983 (1984) ed. by R.R.K. Hartmann (Lexicographica. Series Maior Vol. 1), Tübingen: M. Niemeyer.
- The History of Lexicography. Papers from the Dictionary Research Centre Seminar at Exeter, March 1986 (1986) ed. by R.R.K. Hartmann (Amsterdam Studies in the Theory and History of Linguistic Science III.40), Amsterdam/Philadelphia: J. Benjamins.
- Lexicography in Africa. Progress Reports from the Dictionary Research Centre Workshop at Exeter 24–25 March 1989 (1990) ed. by R.R.K. Hartmann (Exeter Linguistic Studies Vol. 15), Exeter: University of Exeter Press ISBN 0-85989-345-6.
- Dictionary of Lexicography (1998) comp. by R.R.K. Hartmann & Gregory James, London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-14143-5 (revised paperback edition 2001 ISBN 0-415-14144-3; Cidianxue cidian paperback reprint in English, with Chinese introduction, published in 2000; Japanese translation Jishogaku jiten published in 2003).
- Dictionaries in Language Learning. Recommendations, National Reports and Thematic Reports from the TNP Sub-Project 9 on Dictionaries (1999) ed. by R.R.K. Hartmann, Berlin: Thematic Network Project in the Area of Languages/European Language Council .
- Teaching and Researching Lexicography (2001) by R.R.K. Hartmann (Applied Linguistics in Action), Harlow: Longman-Pearson Education. ISBN 0-582-36977-0 PPR (Chinese reprint published in 2005).
- Lexicography: Critical Concepts (2003) ed. by R.R.K. Hartmann (Reader, with 70 Chapters by 75 authors arranged in 9 Parts in 3 volumes), London: Routledge/Taylor and Francis. ISBN 0-415-25365-9.
- Al-ma’aajim ‘abra l-thaqaafaat. Dictionaries across Cultures. Studies in Lexicography by R.R.K. Hartmann (2004) (17 published and 4 unpublished essays by R.R.K. Hartmann, selected and translated into Arabic by Mohamed Helmy Heliel), Kuwait: Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Science. ISBN 99906-30-70-4.
- Interlingual Lexicography. Selected Essays on Translation Equivalence, Contrastive Linguistics, and the Bilingual Dictionary by R.R.K. Hartmann (2007) (Lexicographica. Series Maior Vol. 133), Tübingen: M. Niemeyer. ISBN 978-3-484-39133-8.
- ^Robert Burchfield (1989) in the Foreword of the Festschrift issued on the occasion of the 15th anniversary of the Exeter University Language Centre and the 5th of the Dictionary Research Centre as well as Hartmann's 50th birthday, Lexicographers and their Works ed. by G. James (Volume 14, Exeter Linguistic Studies, University of Exeter Press) p. vii.
- ^Terry C. Falla (2005) "A conceptual framework for a new Comprehensive Syriac–English Lexicon" in Foundations for Syriac Lexicography: Proceedings of the First International Syriac Language Project Meeting ed. by B. Turner (Cambridge: Gorgias Press) p. 65, n. 162.
- ^The Literati Club/Reference Reviews 1999 award for excellence as 'best specialist reference work' was given to the editors of the Dictionary of Lexicography.
- ^He has been given honorary life membership for his services to EURALEX.
- ^E.g. research councils such as the National Endowment for the Humanities and the British Council, publishers such as Oxford U.P. and Benjamins, and selection panels for conferences such as EURALEX congresses.
- ^Visiting fellowships held at the Humanities Research Centre of the ANU in Canberra (1977), the State University of New York at Binghamton (1985), the University of Waterloo (Ontario) Centre for the New OED (1985), the European Translation Centre at Straelen and the Institut fuer deutsche Sprache in Mannheim (1986), the School of English and Linguistics at Macquarie University in Sydney (1994), the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (1997), and the China Foreign Affairs University in Beijing (2002).
- ^ERASMUS grant 1990/1991 to start M.A. programmes in lexicography at various universities in Europe; Thematic Network Project in the Area of Languages with a Sub-project on Dictionaries in Language Learning in Europe (Hartmann 1999).
- ^The list includes Alan Kirkness (New Zealand), Colin Yallop (Australia), Rufus Gouws (South Africa), Olga Karpova (Russia), Alan Turney, Isamu Hayakawa and Masaaki Ohsugi (Japan), Xiaojun Heng and Jianping Wu (China).
- ^The Linguisten-Handbuch (1994), the Kenkyusha Biographical Dictionary of English Linguistics and Philology (1995), the International Who's Who in Translation and Terminology (1995), the Who's Who in Lexicography (1996), and the Dictionary of International Biography (34th edition 2007).
- ^Some of these Exeter postgraduates have moved on to make an impact on their respective specialisms and countries, notably Fred Weeks, Jon Mills, Mersedeh Proctor and Martin Stark (UK), Peter Sharpe (UK and Japan), Gregory James, Philip Benson, Li Lan, Tan Zaixi and Jacqueline Lam (UK and Hong Kong), Barbara Kipfer (USA), Evanthia Tsiouris and Agapios Oikonomidis (Greece), Ibrahim Al-Besbasi (Libya), Turki Diab (UAE), Nazih Kassis (Israel), Takashi Kanazashi, Kusujiro Miyoshi and Yuri Komuro (Japan), and Young-kuk Jeong (Korea).
Производители программного обеспечения исходят из того, что рано или поздно появятся компьютеры типа ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Технология развивается в геометрической профессии, и рано или поздно алгоритмы, которыми пользуется общество, перестанут быть надежными.
Понадобятся лучшие алгоритмы, чтобы противостоять компьютерам завтрашнего дня. - Такова Цифровая крепость. - Конечно.