Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.
The Dangers of Totalitarianism
1984 is a political novel written with the purpose of warning readers in the West of the dangers of totalitarian government. Having witnessed firsthand the horrific lengths to which totalitarian governments in Spain and Russia would go in order to sustain and increase their power, Orwell designed 1984 to sound the alarm in Western nations still unsure about how to approach the rise of communism. In 1949, the Cold War had not yet escalated, many American intellectuals supported communism, and the state of diplomacy between democratic and communist nations was highly ambiguous. In the American press, the Soviet Union was often portrayed as a great moral experiment. Orwell, however, was deeply disturbed by the widespread cruelties and oppressions he observed in communist countries, and seems to have been particularly concerned by the role of technology in enabling oppressive governments to monitor and control their citizens.
In 1984, Orwell portrays the perfect totalitarian society, the most extreme realization imaginable of a modern-day government with absolute power. The title of the novel was meant to indicate to its readers in 1949 that the story represented a real possibility for the near future: if totalitarianism were not opposed, the title suggested, some variation of the world described in the novel could become a reality in only thirty-five years. Orwell portrays a state in which government monitors and controls every aspect of human life to the extent that even having a disloyal thought is against the law. As the novel progresses, the timidly rebellious Winston Smith sets out to challenge the limits of the Party’s power, only to discover that its ability to control and enslave its subjects dwarfs even his most paranoid conceptions of its reach. As the reader comes to understand through Winston’s eyes, The Party uses a number of techniques to control its citizens, each of which is an important theme of its own in the novel. These include:
The Party barrages its subjects with psychological stimuli designed to overwhelm the mind’s capacity for independent thought. The giant telescreen in every citizen’s room blasts a constant stream of propaganda designed to make the failures and shortcomings of the Party appear to be triumphant successes. The telescreens also monitor behavior—everywhere they go, citizens are continuously reminded, especially by means of the omnipresent signs reading “BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU,” that the authorities are scrutinizing them. The Party undermines family structure by inducting children into an organization called the Junior Spies, which brainwashes and encourages them to spy on their parents and report any instance of disloyalty to the Party. The Party also forces individuals to suppress their sexual desires, treating sex as merely a procreative duty whose end is the creation of new Party members. The Party then channels people’s pent-up frustration and emotion into intense, ferocious displays of hatred against the Party’s political enemies. Many of these enemies have been invented by the Party expressly for this purpose.
In addition to manipulating their minds, the Party also controls the bodies of its subjects. The Party constantly watches for any sign of disloyalty, to the point that, as Winston observes, even a tiny facial twitch could lead to an arrest. A person’s own nervous system becomes his greatest enemy. The Party forces its members to undergo mass morning exercises called the Physical Jerks, and then to work long, grueling days at government agencies, keeping people in a general state of exhaustion. Anyone who does manage to defy the Party is punished and “reeducated” through systematic and brutal torture. After being subjected to weeks of this intense treatment, Winston himself comes to the conclusion that nothing is more powerful than physical pain—no emotional loyalty or moral conviction can overcome it. By conditioning the minds of their victims with physical torture, the Party is able to control reality, convincing its subjects that 2 + 2 = 5.
Control of Information and History
The Party controls every source of information, managing and rewriting the content of all newspapers and histories for its own ends. The Party does not allow individuals to keep records of their past, such as photographs or documents. As a result, memories become fuzzy and unreliable, and citizens become perfectly willing to believe whatever the Party tells them. By controlling the present, the Party is able to manipulate the past. And in controlling the past, the Party can justify all of its actions in the present.
By means of telescreens and hidden microphones across the city, the Party is able to monitor its members almost all of the time. Additionally, the Party employs complicated mechanisms (1984 was written in the era before computers) to exert large-scale control on economic production and sources of information, and fearsome machinery to inflict torture upon those it deems enemies. 1984 reveals that technology, which is generally perceived as working toward moral good, can also facilitate the most diabolical evil.
More main ideas from 1984
Symbolism In 1984 By George Orwell
Symbolism in 1984 by George Orwell
Symbols are everywhere. Whether it’s the cross of Christianity, or the swastika of the Third Reich, symbols can convey messages of love, or hate, without ever having to say a word. While George Orwell in his masterpiece 1984 does, of course, use words to convey his themes, he also uses symbols. In the novel 1984, symbols are used as a way for Orwell to reinforce his three major themes.
One such example of this is the symbol of Julia’s scarlet Anti-Sex League sash. The league itself is vehemently opposed to any type of sexual act or expression, but the sash they use to represent themselves is worn in a very sexual manner, as described in the novel itself. “A narrow satin sash, emblem of the Junior Anti-Sex League, was wound several times round the waist of her overalls, just tightly enough to bring out the shapeliness of her hips” (Orwell 11-12). It draws attention to two very highly sexualized parts of the body, the breasts and the hips. This could be a reinforcement of the theme of “sexual freedom vs. political freedom.” The members of this league have, like all Party members, absolutely no political freedom, and as a consequence, also have no sexual freedom. The government, for whatever reasons, has decided to eliminate sex (or to at least make it an unenjoyable act). They feel that by denying their subjects this base human need, that they will be better able to control them as well. Fortunately though, they ultimately fail in this endeavor. People like Julia who are willing to accept a loss of their political freedom are not so willing to give up their sexual freedom as well. As Winston says, Julia “is only a rebel from the waist downwards” (Orwell 163). Even though Julia herself is caught by the Thought Police, one can almost assume that there are more people like her in Oceania, and that no matter how hard the Party tries, they will never truly be able to get rid of sexual acts or sexual expression.
Another major symbol in 1984 is dust. Dust is everywhere in Oceania. It is in Winston’s apartment, on the streets, and even in the creases of Mrs. Parson’s face. The dust, and the ruin it represents, symbolizes the level of the decay of the physical world prevalent in Oceania. It gives the impression that the quality of life in Oceania is constantly being made worse be the rules of the government. This reinforces the theme of “the destruction of the human spirit.” Orwell...
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